Review of related literature on mother tongue influence

Posterior Tongue Tie — Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Posterior tongue tie ankyloglossia is a shortening of the frenulum of tongue, thereby limiting his mobility. The shortening of the bridle — a birth defect. Newborn posterior tongue tie causes disturbances in the process of sucking.

Review of related literature on mother tongue influence

Knowledge of the pre-Wycliffite English renditions stems from the many actual manuscripts that have survived and from secondary literature, such as book lists, wills, citations by later authors, and references in polemical works that have preserved the memory of many a translation effort.

Origins and basic characteristics English belongs to the Indo-European family of languages and is therefore related to most other languages spoken in Europe and western Asia from Iceland to India. The parent tongue, called Proto-Indo-European, was spoken about 5, years ago by nomads believed to have roamed the southeast European plains.

Germanicone of the language groups descended from this ancestral speech, is usually divided by scholars into three regional groups: Though closely related to English, German remains far more conservative than English in its retention of a fairly elaborate system of inflections.

Frisian, spoken by the inhabitants of the Dutch province of Friesland and the islands off the west coast of Schleswigis the language most nearly related to Modern English. Icelandic, which has changed little over the last thousand years, is the living language most nearly resembling Old English in grammatical structure.

Approximate locations of Indo-European languages in contemporary Eurasia. Modern English is analytic i. During the course of thousands of years, English words have been slowly simplified from the inflected variable forms found in SanskritGreekLatinRussianReview of related literature on mother tongue influence German, toward invariable forms, as in Chinese and Vietnamese.

The German and Chinese words for the noun man are exemplary.

Characteristics of Modern English

German has five forms: Chinese has one form: English stands in between, with four forms: In English, only nouns, pronouns as in he, him, hisadjectives as in big, bigger, biggestand verbs are inflected.

English is the only European language to employ uninflected adjectives; e. As for verbs, if the Modern English word ride is compared with the corresponding words in Old English and Modern German, it will be found that English now has only 5 forms ride, rides, rode, riding, riddenwhereas Old English ridan had 13, and Modern German reiten has In addition to the simplicity of inflections, English has two other basic characteristics: Flexibility of function has grown over the last five centuries as a consequence of the loss of inflections.

Words formerly distinguished as nouns or verbs by differences in their forms are now often used as both nouns and verbs. One can speak, for example, of planning a table or tabling a plan, booking a place or placing a book, lifting a thumb or thumbing a lift. In the other Indo-European languagesapart from rare exceptions in Scandinavian languagesnouns and verbs are never identical because of the necessity of separate noun and verb endings.

In English, forms for traditional pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs can also function as nouns; adjectives and adverbs as verbs; and nouns, pronouns, and adverbs as adjectives. One speaks in English of the Frankfurt Book Fair, but in German one must add the suffix -er to the place-name and put attributive and noun together as a compoundFrankfurter Buchmesse.

In French one has no choice but to construct a phrase involving the use of two prepositions: Foire du Livre de Francfort.

In English it is now possible to employ a plural noun as adjunct modifieras in wages board and sports editor; or even a conjunctional group, as in prices and incomes policy and parks and gardens committee. Any word class may alter its function in this way: Openness of vocabulary implies both free admission of words from other languages and the ready creation of compounds and derivatives.

English adopts without change or adapts with slight change any word really needed to name some new object or to denote some new process.

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Words from more than languages have entered English in this way. Although a Germanic language in its sounds and grammarthe bulk of English vocabulary is in fact Romance or Classical in origin. English possesses a system of orthography that does not always accurately reflect the pronunciation of words; see below Orthography.

Characteristics of Modern English Phonology British Received Pronunciation RPtraditionally defined as the standard speech used in London and southeastern Englandis one of many forms or accents of standard speech throughout the English-speaking world.

Other pronunciations, although not standard, are often heard in the public domain.

Origins and basic characteristics

It is considered the prestige accent in such institutions as the civil service and the BBC and, as such, has fraught associations with wealth and privilege in Britain. Elizabethan English pronunciationHear the original pronunciation of Elizabethan English as demonstrated and explained by British linguist David Crystal and his actor son, Ben Crystal.

Actors at the rebuilt Globe Theatre, London, have used this pronunciation in performances of William Shakespeare's plays. Inland Northern American vowels sometimes have semiconsonantal final glides i.parents’ level of income, mother’s age and mother’s education. The research is based on student Review of Literature in the literature will prove to be only weakly related to student performance in this study.

However, in the student performance literature, the closest thing to a. No.

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Titles / Authors /Abstracts. Full Text. No. 1. Endocan as a Novel Biomarker Versus Alphafetoprotein in Hepatitis C Virus Related Cirrhosis with Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The study evaluated the use of mother tongue and mathematical language on assessment of Nigerian’s Primary The purpose was to examine the effect of the use of mother tongue and mathematical language on Primary School pupils in mathematics.

() mother tongue was christened as vernacular which means language .

Review of related literature on mother tongue influence

Arab learners' mother tongue influence on target language (English) is a very usual and well-known phenomenon in schools and universities. The present study attempts to find and analyze phonological, morphological and syntactical influences of. Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more.

Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for. Effects of Mother Tongue Interference in the Study of English Language in Secondary Schools. REVIEW OF RELATED OF LITERATURE.

It has become easy to notice the influence of mother tongue in a speaker’s output especially at the early stages of learning the additional language.

Posterior Tongue Tie – Causes and Treatment