Job analysis Job analysis encompasses a number of different methods. By contrast, a worker-oriented job analysis involves an examination of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics KSAOs required to successfully perform the work. Information obtained from job analyses are used for many purposes, including the creation of job-relevant selection procedures, performance appraisals and the criteria they require, and the development of training programs.
Meyer and Allen created this model for two reasons: Meyer and Allen's research indicated that there are three "mind sets" which can characterize an employee's commitment to the organization.
Mercurio extended this model by reviewing the empirical and theoretical studies on organizational commitment. Mercurio posits that emotional, or affective commitment is the core essence of organizational commitment.
Meyer and Allen pegged AC as the "desire" component of organizational commitment. An employee who is affectively committed strongly identifies with the goals of the organization and desires to remain a part of the organization.
This commitment can be influenced by many different demographic characteristics: The problem with these characteristics is that while they can be seen, they cannot be clearly defined. Meyer and Allen gave this example that "positive relationships between tenure and commitment maybe due to tenure-related differences in job status and quality"  In developing this concept, Meyer and Allen drew largely on Mowday, Porter, and Steers's  concept of commitment, which in turn drew on earlier work by Kanter Becker's "side bet theory"  Things like economic costs such as pension accruals and social costs friendship ties with co-workers would be costs of losing organizational membership.
But an individual doesn't see the positive costs as enough to stay with an organization they must also take into account the availability of alternatives such as another organizationdisrupt personal relationships, and other "side bets" that would be incurred from leaving their organization.
The problem with this is that these "side bets" don't occur at once but that they "accumulate with age and tenure". These feelings may derive from a strain on an individual before and after joining an organization.
For example, the organization may have invested resources in training an employee who then feels a 'moral' obligation to put forth effort on the job and stay with the organization to 'repay the debt.
But generally if an individual invest a great deal they will receive "advanced rewards". Normative commitment is higher in organizations that value loyalty and systematically communicate the fact to employees with rewards, incentives and other strategies.
Normative commitment in employees is also high where employees regularly see visible examples of the employer being committed to employee well-being.
An employee with greater organizational commitment has a greater chance of contributing to organizational success and will also experience higher levels of job satisfaction.
High levels of job satisfaction, in turn, reduces employee turnover and increases the organization's ability to recruit and retain talent.
Meyer and Allen based their research in this area more on theoretical evidence rather than empirical, which may explain the lack of depth in this section of their study compared to the others. They drew off Wiener's  research for this commitment component.
Critique to the three-component model[ edit ] Since the model was made, there has been conceptual critique to what the model is trying to achieve.According to Jane Williams, professor of psychology at Indiana University-Purdue University, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior -- another term for organizational behavior -- are important topics in organizational psychology and employee relations.
Since early studies in the s, job satisfaction has become one of the most widely investigated concepts in the field of industrial/organizational psychology. It is a valuable outcome in its own right but also a driver of other important individual and organizational . In Organizational Behavior, job satisfaction is one of the most researched variables in the area of workplace psychology and has been associated with numerous psychosocial issues – the changing world of work, organizational factor- ranging from leadership to job .
It is also important to be aware on how job satisfaction impacts on worker health and productivity, which is explored further in the Job satisfaction: evidence for impact on reducing psychosocial risks article.
Aamodt (M.A., Ph.D., University of Arkansas) is a Professor Emeritus of industrial/organizational psychology at Radford University in Radford, Virginia.
Industrial-organizational psychology is the branch of psychology that applies psychological theories and principles to organizations. Often referred to as I-O psychology, this field focuses on increasing workplace productivity and related issues such as the physical and mental well-being of employees.