Zur Ideologie des Todes in der Kinder- und Jugendliteratur.
Humanism — a history of the hijacked Credo of our species Jul 3rd, By admin Category: Term freely applied to a variety of beliefs, methods, and philosophies that place central emphasis on the human realm.
Most frequently, however, the term is used with reference to a system of education and mode of inquiry that developed in northern Italy during the 13th and 14th centuries and later spread through continental Europe and England.
But humanism sought its own philosophical bases in far earlier times and, moreover, continued to exert some of its power long after the end of the Renaissance.
Renaissance humanism in all its forms defined itself in its straining toward this ideal. Humanitas meant the development of human virtue, in all its forms, to its fullest extent. Just as action without insight was held to be aimless and barbaric, insight without action was rejected as barren and imperfect.
Humanitas called for a fine balance of action and contemplation, a balance born not of compromise but of complementarity.
The goal of such fulfilled and balanced virtue was political, in the broadest sense of the word. The purview of Renaissance humanism included not only the education of the young but also the guidance of adults including rulers via philosophical poetry and strategic rhetoric.
It included not only realistic social criticism but also utopian hypotheses, not only painstaking reassessments of history but also bold reshapings of the future. Humanism had an evangelical dimension: Greek and Roman thought, available in a flood of rediscovered or newly translated manuscripts, provided humanism with much of its basic structure and method.
Compared with the typical productions of medieval Christianity, these pagan works had a fresh, radical, almost avant-garde tonality.
Indeed, recovering the classics was to humanism tantamount to recovering reality. Classical philosophy, rhetoric, and history were seen as models of proper method—efforts to come to terms, systematically and without preconceptions of any kind, with perceived experience.
Moreover, Classical thought considered ethics qua ethics, politics qua politics: Classical virtue, in examples of which the literature abounded, was not an abstract essence but a quality that could be tested in the forum or on the battlefield. Finally, classical literature was rich in eloquence.
In particular since humanists were normally better at Latin than they were at GreekCicero was considered to be the pattern of refined and copious discourse. In eloquence humanists found far more than an exclusively aesthetic quality.
As an effective means of moving leaders or fellow citizens toward one political course or another, eloquence was akin to pure power. Humanists cultivated rhetoric, consequently, as the medium through which all other virtues could be communicated and fulfilled.
Of these excepting the historical movement described above there are three basic types: Accepting the notion that Renaissance humanism was simply a return to the Classics, some historians and philologists have reasoned that Classical revivals occurring anywhere in history should be called humanistic.
Thus, it is customary to refer to scholars in these fields as humanists and to their activities as humanistic. Humanism and related terms are frequently applied to modern doctrines and techniques that are based on the centrality of human experience. Not only is such a large assortment of definitions confusing, but the definitions themselves are often redundant or impertinent.
To say that professors in the many disciplines known as the humanities are humanists is to compound vagueness with vagueness, for these disciplines have long since ceased to have or even aspire to a common rationale.
For obvious reasons, however, it is confusing to apply this word to Classical literature. Basic principles and attitudes Underlying the early expressions of humanism were principles and attitudes that gave the movement a unique character and would shape its future development.
Classicism Early humanists returned to the classics less with nostalgia or awe than with a sense of deep familiarity, an impression of having been brought newly into contact with expressions of an intrinsic and permanent human reality.
Evenings I return home and enter my study; and at its entrance I take off my everyday clothes, full of mud and dust, and don royal and courtly garments; decorously reattired, I enter into the ancient sessions of ancient men.
Received amicably by them, I partake of such food as is mine only and for which I was born.
There, without shame, I speak with them and ask them about the reason for their actions; and they in their humanity respond to me. Machiavelli implies that he shared with the ancients a sovereign wisdom of human affairs.
He also describes that theory of reading as an active, and even aggressive, pursuit that was common among humanists. Possessing a text and understanding its words were not enough; analytic ability and a questioning attitude were necessary before a reader could truly enter the councils of the great.
These councils, moreover, were not merely serious and ennobling; they held secrets available only to the astute, secrets the knowledge of which could transform life from a chaotic miscellany into a crucially heroic experience.
Classical thought offered insight into the heart of things. In addition, the classics suggested methods by which, once known, human reality could be transformed from an accident of history into an artifact of will. Antiquity was rich in examples—actual or poetic—of epic action, victorious eloquence, and applied understanding.Brothers in Arms: The Epic Story of the st Tank Battalion, WWII's Forgotten Heroes [Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Anthony Walton] on ashio-midori.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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The story is set on the mythical continent of Osten Ard, a fairly Standard Fantasy Setting in which humans are the dominant race after centuries of struggle against the elf-like Sithi, troll/dwarf/Eskimo crossover Qanuc, and various other creatures.
Beneath the surface, however, ancient magics are stirring as. English Literature Essays, literary criticism on many authors, links to internet resources and bookshop. Mentions of the Harry Potter Bibliography "Since , Cornelia Rémi has maintained an up-to-date and marvelously informative website of international scholarship, symposia, sources, [ ] which attests to the ever-growing, worldwide attention being given to this literature and the vast sea of literary productions emerging from that attention.".
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