Just as the form of an axe is whatever enables it to cut, and the form of an eye is whatever enables it to see, the human soul is to be identified with whichever powers and capacities enable a natural, organized human body to fulfill its defining function, which, according to Aristotle, is to survive and flourish as a living, acting, perceiving, and reasoning being. So, Aristotle argues, the soul is inseparable from the body, and comprises whichever capacities are required for a body to live, perceive, reason, and act. It was not until the middle of the 20th century, however, that it became common to speculate that thinking may be nothing more than rule-governed computation that can be carried out by creatures of various physical types. As an empirical psychological theory, behaviorism holds that the behavior of humans and other animals can be explained by appealing solely to behavioral dispositions, that is, to the lawlike tendencies of organisms to behave in certain ways, given certain environmental stimulations.
By by domyessayscom An American scholar William James is considered to be a pioneer of the functional school of psychology. Unlike his predecessors who claimed that it is important to focus on the elements structure of human consciousness to study it, James argued that the most important thing is its functions Shergill, James influenced the sphere of psychology immensely.
One cannot name the exact date when functional psychology emerged. It was not a sudden breakthrough. Rather, the scholar worked on developing his main ideas for many years, complementing and adjusting his arguments as he gained more knowledge about human consciousness Hart, James maintained that dividing human experiences is incorrect, as no one has a simple sensation or feeling by itself.
Consciousness is more complex than that, he believed. Consciousness is directly related to adaptation, as it allows human beings to fit into the environment and actively respond to its changes Hart, These ideas later formed the new school of thought.
Characteristics of Functionalism Psychology Functionalism has gained increasing popularity among psychologists. Its main ideas are as follows.
First, functionalism postulates that no elements of consciousness exist. Second, functionalists argue that consciousness is the function of the mind that allows people to adjust to the environment.
Third, they emphasize that in order to study consciousness, one needs to get insight into the unique needs and motivations of each living being either a man or an animal. Moreover, a focus on practice has been made. Using a variety of methods and contexts is crucial, argued scholars, as it allows exploring the human mind from different perspectives Hergenhahn, Functional psychology is widely used today.
William James functionalism and principles of psychology have made it possible for practicing psychologists to take human experience out of the private subjective realm and open them to active analysis and investigation Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, It is believed that functionalism broadened the scope of research and application of psychology and suggested new research techniques to collect valuable data.
These include mental tests, questionnaires, psychological measures, etc. To summarize, William James created the foundation for the whole new school of thought that look at human consciousness from a different perspective.
His ideas were extremely valuable since they allowed to broaden the scope of research and gain new knowledge about the human mind and its functional role. This is a sample of an essay on psychology.
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A functional orientation to counseling and psychotherapy: Including a twelve-month manual for therapists. An introduction to the history of psychology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.FUNCTIONALISM Student’s Class: Instructor: Describing Functionalism and Psychofunctionalism According to Ned Block, Functionalism is concerned with finding then answer to the question (what the mental states are).
Functionalism Essay example What is Functionalism? In the social sciences specifically sociology and socio-cultural anthropology, functionalism also functional analysis, is a sociological philosophy that originally attempts to explain social institutions as collective means to fill individual biological needs.
Essay: Functionalism Functionalism is the sociological theory which holds that each part of society is necessary for the functioning of the social organism. There are several elements in the functionalist paradigm which explain how society functions to maintain the social organism and keep it alive.
This section will explain how the Dualism prospective will used to explain both theories of Structuralism and Functionalism and how they interactions with the mind and body. According to Goodwin, () dualism views the mind and the body as two distinct entities, and that one can and does exist alone.
Functionalism is defined as philosophical view of mind according to which mental processes are characterized in terms of their abstract functional (opr computational) relationships to one another, and to sensory inputs and motor outputs.
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